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Common Terms

Back Nursing Research

"Caring is the essence of Nursing"

Leininger, 1984

Commonly Used Terms

Conceptual framework &Conceptual Model: Interrelated  concepts or abstractions that are assembled together in some rational scheme by virtue of their relevance to a common theme.[2]

Evidence-based Nursing Practice: solves problems encountered by nurses by carrying out four steps:

  1. Clearly identify the issue or problem based on accurate analysis of current nursing knowledge and practice
  2. Search the literature for relevant research
  3. Evaluate the research evidence using established criteria regarding scientific merit
  4. Choose interventions and justify the selection with the most valid evidence [1]

Research Utilization: The use of some aspect of a scientific investigation in an application unrelated to the original research.[2]

Literature review:  A critical summary of research on a topic of interest, often prepared to put a research topic in context or as a basis for an implementation project.[2]

Nursing process: A model commonly used for decision making in nursing.[2]

Theoretical base of nursing practice:

Integrative literature review: Integration of a body of research findings (including theory, statistics) which concludes by addressing issues for future research[1]

Systematic literature review: Comprehensive, unbiased analysis of research findings on a specific topic which uses a strict scientific design to select and assess various related scientific studies[1]

Meta-analysis: A technique for quantitatively combining and thus integrating the results of multiple studies on a given topic.[2]

Clinical Decision-making: drawing conclusions based on EBN, clinical expertise, patient preference, and other factors such as cost-benefit analysis, availability of alternatives, etc. [1]


1.Stevens, K. R.  & Cassidy, V. (1999) Evidence-based teaching: Current Research in Nursing Education. New York: Jones & Bartlett.

2. Polit, D. F. & Hungler, B. P. (1999). Nursing research principles and methods. Phildelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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