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Havelock's Linker Theory

Putting Research Into Practice: Applying Research Utilization Model

Kisker, E.E., Brown, R.S. (1996). Do school based health centers improve adolescents' access to health care, health status, and risk-taking behavior? Journal of Adolescent Health, 18, 335-343.

Havelock's Linker System Theory will be used to outline a plan for utilization of the findings from the study.

Step 1: Identification of Needs
  1. Accessible, affordable health care for adolescents.
Step 2: Problem Diagnosis
  1. Need for education about growth and development.
  2. Need for health education.
  3. Prevention education for high risk behaviors.
  4. easily accessible health care.
Step 3: Retrieval of Resources
  1. Literature search.
  2. Bring together community leaders, board of education, parents.
Step 4: Change Agent Helps Leaders Understand Research
  1. Literature shows increase of usage of SBHC's for low income students.
  2. SBHC's didn't increase high risk behaviors.
  3. Clinics were in high schools (too late to impact prevention of high risk behaviors).
  4. No comparison of clinic successes with education preparation of clinic nurses.
  5. No information about financial impact on communities.
  6. Need for more rigorous research design.
Step 5: Selecting/Formulating Innovation
  1. Enlist support of community leaders.
  2. Select rigorous research design.
  3. Place SBHCs in middle schools and high schools.
  4. APNs part of program development to meet desired outcomes.
  5. APNs to educate clinic staff and oversee program.
Step 6: Application of the Innovation
  1. Adapt as needed.
  2. Data collection to evaluate outcomes.

Used with permission from Carole Melander, RN, MS, 1997

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